A Tale of Two World Views: How Language and Science Collide! Only Open-Form Words Can Rescue Science from Closed-Form Scientism


The working title for this forthcoming book (~2017) is tentative.

Feedback is ubiquitous and provides for the emergence of an infinite amount of change and complexity. However, the power to explain change in simple terms requires an open-form language that harnesses feedback, e.g., as used in the “hard science” of Physics. However, the “softer sciences” (and philosophy) continue to apply closed-form thinking – language and meaning that fundamentally disallows feedback – to the problem of change. It is an unfortunate mathematical fact that, at best, closed-form concepts lead to an endless set of local re-descriptions that over time and in hindsight, amount to scientism. Moreover, each closed-form approximation also requires an infinite set of terms to improve local precision. This book highlights the differences between these two epistomologies – languages for theorizing about change – and attempts to harden the soft sciences by converting closed-form thinking to open-form. It amounts to a revolution from the current linguistic turn (which happens to be closed), to an open one.

Infinity Dragons by Dan Morris (2010)The “naturallanguage of continuous change is of a system of interacting open-form expressions that harness feedback. They are epitomized by “dynamics” – the partial differential equations of modern physics – and were critical to overcoming the closed-form limitations of natural language. That, and the search for universal laws, i.e., invariants not relative to local contexts, permitted Physics to become a “hard science“, a unified science.

The Tower of Babel by Pieter BruegelHowever, the “softer sciences” (and philosophy) are replete with the closed-form conceptions of natural language. The closed-form problem stems from the dictionary style hierarchically structured definitions of words that does not allow for feedback. These do not have the power to explain change in a unified manner, and can only allow for an endless and infinite variety of local re-descriptions – the hallmark of scientism. Indeed, that is why the search for unification and external validity is given such short thrift in the soft sciences – they are mathematically impossible.

David’s book exposes the linguistic flaw within the soft sciences and philosophy. All the assumptions withing the closed-form linguistic turn are exposed, and this allows the move to the open-form linguistic turn to begin. The hardening of soft sciences demands it. The search for unification can now begin with a firm foundation.



WikiSilo bases and forksWikiSilo theory is a minimalist epistemology that supports a unifying discipline within academia. It is supported by the WikiSilo tool (from wikisilo.org), and Wikimergic is its first client.


  • The Emergic Approach is loosely defined for unifying cognitive modeling
  • Wikimergic (a product of the Emergic Approach) is used to document the Emergic Approach. It includes WikiSilo components, and ECM.
  • WikiSilo becomes a minimalist version of the Emergic Approach for science in general. It is housed in the master root level 0 WikiSilo named Wikisilo at wikisilo,org, Simultaneously, Wikimergic has extensions of WikiSilo theory for unifying cognitive modeling.
  • Open-form thinking updates mostly Wikimergic, but WikiSilo as well. Wikimergic becoming suitable for unifying all of science, academia, general learning and decision making. A tool for unifying the world!


External links

Abnormal Science for Abnormal Perception: A Case for Theoretical Cognitive Science via a Case Study of Narrow Slit Viewing

Leibovitz, D. P. (2013+) Abnormal Science for Abnormal Perception: A Case for Theoretical Cognitive Science via a Case Study of Narrow Slit Viewing. Working Paper, pp. 1-7. [doi10.13140/RG.2.1.3731.8889] (PDF)

Leibovitz (2013+) Abnormal Science for Abnormal PerceptionAbstract: Anorthoscopic perception is good perception under abnormal viewing conditions. One such scenario is when a wider view of the world is perceived than can be sensed at any one time when looking through a narrow slit. Thus, narrow slit viewing and aperture viewing are common nicknames for this phenomenon. Somehow, visual information must be integrated across viewpoints and one fundamental issue is whether this occurs at the finer-grained locus of sensation, or the larger-grained locus of perception. This paper supports a fine-grained sensory model (Leibovitz, 2013a).

The wider view of abnormal perception will also be used as a metaphor to the unified view of theoretical science as compared to the experimental branch. While analyzing, modeling and theorizing are epistemic activities of both branches, their goals and hence nature will differ. This paper will summarize such differences and introduce theoretical cognitive science via a case study. One surprising difference is that abnormal or holistic analysis requires not only greater epistemic breadth, but must also induce finer ontological grains.

An epistemic problem for holistic analysis is in determining the wider scope applicable for the study of a target phenomenon. This is where theory can inform data. In this paper, we use an ontological, fine-grained and unified theory of cognition (Leibovitz, 2013b) to scope out the relevant neurobiological structures and related phenomena that bear on the target phenomenon of anorthoscopic perception.

Finally, this paper constitutes the theoretical analysis of alternative theories and phenomenon in support for our own theory of narrow slit viewing (Leibovitz, 2013a). In essence, we exemplify abnormal science over abnormal perception, i.e., of theoretical cognitive science for anorthoscopic perception.

Keywords: Abnormal philosophy; Abnormal science; Anorthoscopic; Blink; Epistemology; Experimental; Perception; Aperture Viewing; Emergic Cognitive Model (ECM); Emergic Network (EN); Flowcentric; Foveal Tritanopia; Fusion; Integration; Ontology; Neurocentric; Retinal Painting; Retinotopic; Segmentation; Sensation; Slit Viewing; Spatiotopic; Theoretical; Unified Modeling.


Wikimergic: unifying the science of brain and mind according to the Emergic Approach

Leibovitz, D. P. (2013) Wikimergic: unifying the science of brain and mind according to the Emergic Approach. WikiSilo accessed July 15, 2013 from http://en.wikimergic.org. Accessed September 7, 2015 from http://web.archive.org/web/20130703150953/http://wikimergic.upwize.com/wiki/Main_Page.

Abstract: Wikimergic logoWikimergic is a WikiSilo. Both are theories, methodologies, frameworks, tools and approaches for collaboratively unifying science. However, a WikiSilo is a minimalist and pure epistemology unconcerned with the nature of reality, while Wikimergic is used for explaining change, behaviour and time. This item publicizes the availability of Wikimergic.


See also:



Wikimergic logoWikimergic is derived from the Emergic Approach to unified cognitive modeling. As a product, it forms a wiki and tool that can be used for unifying analysis and synthesis. More importantly, it can demonstrate a coherence of complex distributed conceptions. As a research line of inquiry, one asks how to make the most effective tool for the sociologizing of unification. David started Wikimergic in 2013.


  • The Emergic Approach was loosely formulated as an epistemology for unifying cognitive modeling. The Emergic Cognitive Model was a scientific theoretical product of the approach.
  • Wikimergic was a disciplining tool for documenting the Emergic Approach, but it included the future ECM and WikiSilo portions.
  • WikiSilo was spawn of as a minimalist disciplining and unifying epistemizing for all of science. If Wikisilo.org contained the master root level 0 WikiSilo, then Wikimergic became a top level 1 WikiSilo, and ECM a 2nd level WikiSilo. Wikimergic did not yet have the fundamental open-form thinking component.
  • Wikimergic becomes a general open-form thinking for science, academia and general learning and decision making,


External links

A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture (Doctoral dissertation)

Leibovitz, D. P. (2013). A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture. (Order No. NR94549, Carleton University (Canada)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, pp. xxxii-459. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1437103134?accountid=9894. (1437103134). [doi10.13140/RG.2.1.2681.6482] (PDF)

Leibovitz (2013) ThesisAbstract: The Emergic Cognitive Model (ECM) is a unified computational model of visual filling-in based on the Emergic Network architecture. The Emergic Network was designed to help realize systems undergoing continuous change. In this thesis, eight different filling-in phenomena are demonstrated under a regime of continuous eye movement (and under static eye conditions as well). Continue reading

A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture – Supplement

Leibovitz, D. P. (2013). A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture – Supplement, pp. xv-467. Carleton University. [doi10.13140/RG.2.1.4506.4161] (PDF)

Abstract: Leibovitz (2013) Thesis - SupplementThis is supplemental material for the eight cognitive models and forty two tests of a thesis named “A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture”. This supplement contains detailed information about computational test subjects, stimuli, and results. The thesis contains extracts from the information contained herein. The models and tests are listed in the same order as in the thesis and with the same chapter/appendix identifiers. Continue reading